CO2 Extracts and Extraction Simplified

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Post by Suzanne R Banks

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Hi APJ,

CO2 Extracts and Extraction Simplified

EssentialOils thewellnessdoerPhoto Stolen thewellnessdoer

When we talk about essential oils, it’s often an umbrella term for many different kinds of aromatic liquids.

Essential Oils

These are usually water/steam distilled, and this is the most common way to date that oils are extracted. All the oils you would commonly buy today would be steam and water distilled and this process is simple, traditional and dates back through the past century.

Absolutes

These are usually made flowers or very delicate plants where a chemical extraction process is used (see my article Absolutes? Not Absolutely) but they resemble essential oils in viscosity and are used in the same way as essential oils. They tend to be more concentrated then essential oils.

Oleoresins and Resinoids

These are highly concentrated liquid extracts that are a combination of resins and aromatic oils. The plants they come from have a high resin content so they fall into their own category. Once again they can be used in the same way as essential oils.

Picture 010Photo Stolen Cottonseed Oil Flickr

CO2 Extracts

CO2 Extraction is also called Super-critical CO2 extraction and it produces a couple of plant products – extracts or selects, and totals.

A relative newcomer in the world of extraction, the name makes it sound bad but it’s not! There are lots of good things about this process and I’ll try to sum it up briefly and succinctly.

The extraction process uses carbon dioxide heated to a degree where it has both liquid and gaseous properties- this part is the super-critical part. It’s less hot them steam and water distillation so this is a bonus as it doesn’t change the plant materials as much. It’s this liquid form that extracts the volatile plant material. Aromatic oils, resins and other cellular materials like pigments are extracted by the liquid CO2 which evaporates easily, leaving a substance that more closely resembles the plant.

CO2 extracts more closely aromatically resemble the whole plant, whereas essential oils are specifically the volatile oil component of the plant.

CO2 extracts may be better scent wise, or less attractive. It depends on the plant.

Some CO2 extracts that are now available are –
ambrette, cardamom, cinnamon, coriander, clove, nutmeg, caraway, fennel, ginger
sea buckthorn
amaranth
cocoa, coffee, vanilla
pomegranate
evening primrose, rosehip
chamomile, champaka, ginger lily, jasmine, juniper, linden blossom, patchouli
arnica, calendula, lavender, hops, St Johns wort,
angelica root, orris root, kava
agarwood, frankincense, galbanum, myrrh, spikenard

I don’t use CO2 extracts extensively in my practice yet, as many of the extracts are semi-solid and aren’t easy to work with. It seems some of the extracts are better suited to using in creams and lotions. As I move more into the area of natural perfumery I know I’ll use some of the extracts more often. I haven’t actually spent the time looking at the analysis of each oil, which will indicate the therapeutic property of the “oil”.

According to Nature’s Gift, “totals” are a secondary product of the CO2 process: “are usually thick and pasty due to the beneficial fats, resins and waxes they contain that come from the plant material itself. These totals are soluble in essential oils and vegetable oils. …. These potent extracts are wonderful for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The Calendulas extract, for example, in a dosage of 2 grams extract to 1000 grams ointment is effective for it’s anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity.”

None of my suppliers in Sydney provide these “totals” and I don’t have first hand knowledge of how they work – but it sounds interesting!

Good luck with the CO2 extracts!

Suzanne R Banks XXX

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Below you’ll find an extremely interesting video.

Supercritical CO2 extraction of cinnamon, coffee, and vanilla with dry ice

5 comments on “CO2 Extracts and Extraction Simplified

  1. Fantastic article. I will read that again when it’s quiet to really take it in. I’m being educated delightfully!

    best wishes
    Samantha
    IScentYouADay
    Samantha Scriven recently posted…Chanel No 5 Eau Premiere: Ta dah!My Profile

  2. Azar says:

    Suzanne!
    What a great article and the the video is SO interesting. Thank you again for sharing your knowledge.
    Azar xx

  3. Jackie Rosen says:

    Hi Suzanne,
    What an exciting article! & that video! Thank you for the list with several new discoveries for me. My first experience was a frankincense that I found at a health food store in LA. Love it!
    Here’s a link for you. http://www.shopsimplers.com/frankincense-co2.html/
    Thanks as always. Big love from a snowy day in Santa Fe,
    Jackie

  4. australianperfumejunkies says:

    Heya Suzanne,
    Every piece you write for APJ is an education. I always look forward to your piece because you cut it into bite sized chunks for me.
    Thank you.Portia xxx

  5. Jennifer C says:

    Great article! And thanks for that video! I’d never seen how CO2 extraction is actually done, and it’s neat to see the process being done in a small-scale way.

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